Programming: A Constructive Art

In the preface of “Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs” (Prentice-Hall Series in Automatic Computation, 1976; page xv), Nicklaus Wirth stated (boldface mine):

Programming is a constructive art. How can a constructive, inventive activity be taught? One method is to crystallize elementary composition principles out of many cases and exhibit them in a systematic manner. But programming is a field of vast variety often involving complex intellectual activities. The belief that it could ever be condensed into a sort of pure “recipe teaching” is mistaken. What remains in our arsenal of teaching methods is the careful selection and presentation of master examples. Naturally, we should not believe that every person is capable of gaining equally much from the study of examples. It is the characteristic of this approach that much is left to the student, to his diligence and intuition. This is particularly true of the relatively involved and long example programs. Their inclusion in this book is not accidental. Longer programs are the prevalent case in practice, and they are much more suitable for exhibiting that elusive but essential ingredient called style and orderly structure. They are also meant to serve as exercises in the art of program reading, which too often is neglected in favor of program writing. This is a primary motivation behind the inclusion of larger programs as examples in their entirety. The reader is led through a gradual development of the program; he is given various snapshots in the evolution of a program, whereby this development becomes manifest as a stepwise refinement of the details. I consider it essential that programs are shown in final form with sufficient attention to details, for in programming, the devil hides in the details. Although the mere presentation of an algorithm’s principle and its mathematical analysis may be stimulating and challenging to the academic mind, it seems dishonest to the engineering practitioner. I have therefore strictly adhered to the rule of presenting the final programs in a language in which they can actually be run on a computer.

Several decades later, I think Wirth’s observations about teaching and learning to program are still thoroughly valid. In fact, even today, the art of program reading is still neglected in favor of program writing. Careful reading and analysis of others’ code is a great resource for learning and improving our programming skills. And, of course, great minds are timeless.